Closely connected to value theory, or moral philosophy.

Kantian ethics presupposes that there is a universal moral law that applies to all rational beings, or his deontological ethics framework that based on “categorical imperative”.

This is different from Mill’s utilitarianism, who argued actions are right insofar as they promote happiness and wrong insofar that they produce a reverse of happiness.

Nietzsche critiqued conventional moral theories, and argued for reevaluation of value. He believed that traditional morality stifled the full potential of human excellence, seen through BGE or “On the Genealogy of Moral”.

Ethics arguments are based of the principles of “good” versus “evil”. What defined as “good” and “evil”? Does human whom ideology falls outside of the Overton Window considered “evil”?

That’s why it’s important to understand our alignment through anthropology work such that we didn’t repeat history.