French philosopher, known for his work on the concept of multiplicity, being and affirmation.

Also work on critical philosophy and the study of sense and value.

Nietzsche and Philosophy

The common misunderstanding of power is that it is the object of the will. Instead, Deleuze posits Power as subject of the will, such that Will to Power is not a desire for domination, but expressive force that creates values

Nietzsche’s genealogy work on moral makes nihilism the presupposition of all metaphysics rather than a particular metaphysics, which allows nihilism to be overcome via the active negation of reactive forces.

Deleuze rejects the traditional metaphysical view of being as stable and singular, instead proposing an ontology of difference where being is understood as a dynamic process of becoming. 1 This process is characterized by the constant creation of new relations and entities, without any predetermined goal or final state. In this framework, the will to power is seen as the differential and generative force that drives the process of becoming, constantly creating new values and ways of being.

Deleuze interprets Nietzsche’s “eternal return” as affirmation of becoming:

The analogy of a dice throw2: When we throw the dice, the outcome is the combination of chances (randomness) and the necessity (resulting combination that follows the throw). Deleuze infers that necessity is not something separate from chance but is affirmed through chance. Or necessity (outcome of dice throw) is realized through the act of throwing the dice.

Nietzsche turns chance into an affirmation, identifying it with multiplicity, fragments, parts, and chaos. The dice throw affirms becoming, and the combination it forms upon falling is the affirmation of necessity.

active and reactive forces.

See also: action theory

Capitalism and Schizophrenia


  1. See this notes

  2. chances: “Nietzsche identifie le hasard au multiple, aux fragments, aux membres, au chaos: chaos des dés qu’on choque et qu’on lance.”